Tuesday, November 25, 2014

A Joint Compiler for Groovy and Java using the Processing API?

We had this year a Google Summer of Code project (actually 2) with the goal to write a stubless joint compiler for Groovy using the javac API or at least finding out if it can be done. The idea was to have a two way communication between the compilers, adapting the AST to what each compiler needs. This would allow to compile both languages at once in a single pass, without creating a lot of potentially unused files with potential errors in them as well.

Well, since that did not work out particularly well, I started with a more simple approach leveraging the Java processing API. It surely is no secret that a @SupportedAnnotationTypes("*") will cause the annotation processor described with this to be applied to all classes javac is going to compile. Interesting is how javac behaves if a class cannot be resolved. In that case the symbol gets an error marking, but you can still get information about it.

So I thought, it could be a good idea to just use what javac offers in the processing API to produce a bunch of ClassNode instances our Groovy compiler will understand to then compile first the Groovy code and later use the produced final class files to compile the Java code in a second javac run. The big advantages are: no stubs and java can see the effects of ast transformations in Groovy.

Simple tests showed the approach working well. I just used dummies for the missing classes and let the Groovy compiler fill them later. This worked well till the point where I made a bigger test using the Groovy build itself... and spending hours working myself through the sparse documentation of that API. When I tried out the final version I did find the big flaw in this approach...

Let us assume we have a "import x.y.*; package foo; class FromJava extends FromGroovy {}" where FromJava is Java code and FromGroovy is groovy code. While I can know the full name for FromJava as foo.FromJava and while javac is so kind to tell me that name, we have a big problem with FromGroovy. FromGroovy could have the full name x.y.FromGroovy or foo.FromGroovy. Since javac cannot resolve the missing FromGroovy class, all I will get is a vanilla FromGroovy. In the Groovy compiler on the other hand I only have the full name. And since the vanilla name is not clear enough to find the correct class with the full name, I would need package and imports to maybe create a lookup of some kind myself. But the processing API does not provide information about imports. And that's where this approach gets a burial.

So either to use javac internal apis to get the needed information or no joint compilation.

But using the javac internal api is something I wanted to avoid for this approach. For one it is an internal API and as such not really adapted for outside use and for a number two... the API is complex and difficult to work through. Pairing up with somone knowing javac very well I could probably write a proper joint compiler within a few days. But that's no option here.